Nuclear position is actively controlled and can be adjusted according to the needs of a cell by nuclear movement. Microtubules mediate the majority of nuclear movements studied to date, although examples of nuclear movements mediated by the actin cytoskeleton have been described. One such actin-dependent nuclear movement occurs during centrosome orientation in fibroblasts polarizing for migration. Here, the centrosome is maintained at the cell center while the nucleus is moved to the cell rear by actin retrograde flow thus positioning the centrosome between the nucleus and the leading edge of the cell. We have explored the molecular mechanism for actin dependent movement of the nucleus during centrosome centration. We found that a novel linear array of nuclear envelope membrane proteins composed of nesprin-2G and SUN2, called transmembrane actin-associated nuclear TAN lines, couple the nucleus to moving actin cables resulting in the nucleus being positioned toward the cell rear. TAN lines are anchored by A-type lamins and this allows the forces generated by the actin cytoskeleton to be transmitted across the nuclear envelope to move the nucleus. Here we review the data supporting this mechanism for nuclear movement, discuss questions remaining to be addressed and consider how this new mechanism of nuclear movement may shed light on human disease. Contrary to the impression one gets from diagrams and images in cell biology textbooks, the position of nuclei in cells is not static. Nuclei move within the cytoplasm to specific locations in response to the needs of the cell especially during cell polarization and movement associated with tissue reorganization and organ development.
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